Xu Shouhui

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Xu Shouhui
Ruler of Tianwan
Reign1351 - 1360
Family name: Xu (徐)
Given name: Shouhui (壽輝)
Era dates
Zhiping (治平): 1351-1355
Taiping (太平): 1356-1358
Tianqi (天啟): 1358-1359
Tianding (天定): 1359-1360
DynastyTianwan (天完)
Rebels and warlords at the end of Yuan Dynasty, including the location of Xu Shouhui's force.

Xu Shouhui (simplified Chinese: 徐寿辉; traditional Chinese: 徐壽輝; pinyin: Xú Shòuhuī; Wade–Giles: Hsü Shou-hui) (died 1360) was a 14th-century Chinese rebel leader who proclaimed himself emperor of the Tianwan dynasty (天完) during the late Yuan dynasty period of China. He was also known as Xu Zhenyi (徐真一 or 徐真逸, romanized in Wade–Giles as Hsü Chen-i).

Born in Luotian (羅田, now in Hubei), Xu was a cloth vendor by profession.

Empire of Tianwan[edit]

In August 1351, he worked with others in Qízhōu (蘄州) to establish the rebel army of Red Turbans under the pretense of the Buddhist White Lotus Society. In the following months of the Red Turban Rebellion, they captured Qishui (蘄水) and made it the command centre of the Red Turbans and the capital of the newly declared Empire of Tianwan (天完), with himself as the emperor with the era name of Zhiping (治平).

The number of his supporters increased rapidly as he claimed to be Maitreya Buddha (彌勒佛下生) who sought to "destroy the rich to benefit the poor" (摧富益貧). In 1352, he invaded more of Hebei, and moved on to take Jiangxi, Anhui, Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Hunan.

After being temporarily defeated by the army of the Yuan dynasty, he fled to Huangmei Mountain (黃梅山), but returned in 1355 to invade once again and move the capital to Hanyang District.

Five years later in 1360, Xu Shouhui was assassinated by his former ally, Chen Youliang, thus causing the collapse of the Tianwan Empire.

See also[edit]